The North German Baroque Organ

The North German Baroque Organ
Research Project in Göteborg


The Organ as a Symbol of the European Vision
Safeguarding and Communicating a Common Heritage

A project within the European Commission's
cultural program Raphael (DG X)

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An Organ Lost in Lübeck - an Organ Regained in Göteborg

The history of how the new organ in North German Baroque style was born is a story woven of many threads but with a single goal, a single vision. Over ten years, the project traveled 300 years back in time; from Arp Schnitger's (1648-1719) majestic Baroque façade in the Lübeck Dom in 1699 to the splendid reconstructed façade in Örgryte Nya kyrka in Göteborg, finished in 1999. Like a similarly woven tapestry, the façade traveled through time and space. For a fraction of a second, a quick glance in the direction of the newly built organ gallery in the west can dispatch one south and back in time to Lübeck in the Baroque period. However, upon close inspection, the tapestry reveals a completely different picture. One can only see knots! The weaving is a complex and abstract pattern of thousands of individually created actions. This is a story of both the perspective and the vision, but also of the thousands of small knots and connections that are woven together.

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The Vision

During the Middle Ages, the major trade cities of northern Europe had an alliance, the Hanseatic League, which was the leading commercial power for several centuries. With Lübeck at the pinnacle, the Hanse cities developed an economic prosperity and a blooming culture that also generated an unusually rich period of musical performance and instrument building. Sea travel and trade created the favorable economic conditions. Due to clever political characters and because of their strategic geographical location, many of the cities survived the ravages and turmoil of the wars. Skilled artists, craftsmen, musicians, and instrument builders fled from the strife in the west and south to security inside the city walls. Power craved the proper authority.

At the same time, the organ became a central symbol for the city's new prosperity and an inspiration for ongoing creativity with new expressions and rich decorations. Through its complex construction and nature, the organ attracted foreign craftsworkers and scientists at a level of quality that has rarely been surpassed since that time. In every case, the organs represented the zenith of architecture, music, mechanics, mathematics, art, handcraft, and techniques of their time. Therefore, everyone regardless of rank or class could enjoy sonorous artwork. They all listened to organ music, but only a few knew what went on behind the mighty façade. For musicians, the organ was the most prominent and visible instrument to be found. Organists demonstrated their musical positions and power through "organ sermons" played on the full organ with bells and bird songs on feast days and at weddings. For reflective services, prayer days, and funerals, organists chose fewer stops with color sounds, even the Trommel (drum).

Much of the music from these 17th-century city organists is extant: from Hamburg, Lübeck, or Amsterdam... but what is the present state of the organs? The prosperity of the times made possible their conception and birth, but in a lasting strong economy, the symbols of wealth changed with time. The result is that none of these majestic north European Baroque city organs is preserved in its entirety. Fortunately, a few organs from that time exist with some of the material preserved, material that survived the World War II bomb raids, but which has been restored many times. Every succeeding restoration tends to erase more and more of the pipes' original construction and sound. But most of the preserved pipes, even those that have undergone many changes from organ builders or restorations, still sound better than modern copies. Why? We could only answer that question by making our vision a reality.

The vision was clear: to experience for the first time in modern times how the famous Baroque organists' music actually sounded in their time. The same type of musical experience inspired Johann Sebastian Bach in 1705 to travel on foot the long distance from Arnstadt in Thuringia to Lübeck, just to hear the magnificent organs in the north and just to hear the organ master, Dieterich Buxtehude (1637-1707) play. Thus, recreating that musical experience was also our vision. But how could we get the necessary experience and study 17th-century organ and instrumental music unless we would build, yes, reconstruct such an organ?

Thus, the North German organ research project was born. As an introduction, we thought we only needed to build a Baroque organ and begin to make music! In time, it became clear to us that too many essential factors existed with which we had only limited acquaintance and which would greatly affect both the sound and the playing of the instrument. We needed to set all of these factors on the table and study them thoroughly if our instrument was to achieve the standard we envisioned. It became more and more clear that comprehensive research was needed, time, resources, knowledge, and perhaps a whole new working model.

As the project had a multi-disciplinary and scientific character, researchers from the Chalmers University of Technology became involved from the beginning, which led us to confront many new questions. Was it really true that the historic pipes sounded different than modern copies? Was there a measurable difference in the sound quality? And if that was the case, what caused the difference? Researchers specialized in material, acoustics, and fluid dynamics began to engage in the work. Gathering organ builders and researchers from different countries for conferences and study trips to historic organs formed the basis for our investigation. Then, a research plan and a working model grew out of the discussions.

We would need an international organ laboratory, an organ research workshop at Göteborg University, where some of the world's best organ builders in north European Baroque style worked together in the process of building the organ. They should work in close collaboration with researchers from Chalmers, and near to the room in which the organ would be placed. The goal was formulated thus: on a scientific basis, to reconstruct a research instrument, a city organ in North German Baroque style from 1700. But this project laid the foundation for the international center for organ art, Göteborg Organ Art Center (GOArt), which, with its multi-disciplinary research at Göteborg has developed in a short period of time to a center of excellence.

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The Organ Master

The organ master Arp Schnitger dominated organ building in North Germany during the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century. During his lifetime, Schnitger built almost 140 organs from three centers of activity: Hamburg, Bremen, and Groningen. He also built smaller organs for England, Spain, Portugal, and Russia. During the 18th century, Schnitger's style of building spread through nearly fifty apprentices and journeymen who followed in his footsteps.

In certain circles, this tradition lasted until the beginning of the 20th century. And because of the newly found interest in classical organ building after World War I, Arp Schnitger has become one of the most influential organ builders in the 20th century. The rather well-preserved Schnitger organ in the Jacobikirche in Hamburg became the emblem for the development initiated by the so-called Organ Reform Movement.

Then in the 1970s, Schnitger-style organs were built in many halls throughout the world, from South Africa, to the U. S., to Canada, to Japan. But with the Göteborg project, a new phase developed: looking at the preserved material in the Jacobikirche organ as a threshold, we strove, without compromises and with a scientific foundation, to build a new organ as we believe Arp Schnitger himself would have created it, to bring forth our vision for Göteborg.

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The Actors

Munetaka Yokota, Japanese organ builder, who was working earlier at Chico State University in California, U. S., joined our project as the person responsible for the research and manufacturing of all of the organ pipes. In the spring of 1994, Yokota moved his whole workshop to a new location in Göteborg. Thus, the organ research laboratory or workshop became a reality! The Swedish organ builder Mats Arvidsson accepted the responsibility for building all of the organ except the pipes, and Dutch organ builder Henk van Eeken was responsible for design and drafting work. Professor Harald Vogel, Bremen, the leading international expert in North German organ art, served as consultant and counselor to the project group with organ builders and researchers who met regularly in Germany, the Netherlands, or Sweden. The collaboration involved gathering sources and material, studying and documenting prototypes, and finally, choosing the concept and form for the new instrument. During the whole process, the question about the sound quality of historic pipes stood in the center.

Experienced organ builders, wood carvers, and pipe makers joined the organ research workshop. They led the work with pipe making developments and building the wooden parts of the organ. Skilled, unemployed handcraftsworkers joined the project from the beginning. They received a foundational education in organ building and soon began participating in the work. Almost fifty handcraftsworkers from 16 countries took part in the organ building work.

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Handcraft and Research

Munetaka Yokota started from the hypothesis that the history of the sound quality of historical pipes began already before the pipes were made, that it began already with the quality and complexity of the metal. Studies of historical organ pipes showed that the pipes were cast on sand. That created a huge challenge because the last northern European organs with pipes cast on sand were made during the first half of the 18th century, and in modern times, no one has presented systematic research about this technique.

We could establish that casting on sand gives the metal a completely different quality from that of pipes cast in the usual modern ways. Due to the sand bed beneath the molten metal, the metal cools quickly to a certain temperature that remains more or less constant, causing the pipe metal to become harder than modern pipe metal. In some of the numerous experiments, the metal became so hard that it was impossible to work with. The right type of sand, the right proportion of impurities or trace materials in the metal, and the right casting temperature are all factors that have proven to have vital importance for the end result.

Pipe casting is also its own art! Slow and careful training is required to be able to control the outcome of the casting process. In modern organ building shops, machines are used to plane down the pipe sheets to the desired thickness, a process that when carried out in the normal modern way actually changes the microstructure of the metal. From that perspective, the pipe sheets can be cast without precision, and it does not matter if the sheets are too thick. In the old workshops, there was no such equipment available. Therefore, organ builders had to learn how to cast the pipe metal as close to the desired thickness as possible so that it was not necessary to use the hand tools more than absolutely necessary. The material was respected, and both the sound and stability of the pipes maintained the most favorable quality. Workers skilled in traditional handcrafts have always operated with a great respect for the quality of traditional material, dimensions, the design, and size and shape of the hand tools. This perspective reveals a complex interaction with significant implications for the end result, in our case, the acoustical quality of the organ pipes.

Therefore, our starting point and hypothesis was that reconstruction of all the details of the handcrafts ought to give the desired quality of sound. During nearly five years, much research and collaboration between organ builders and scientists was necessary to recreate the whole working process. That process led to further research, a break-through for organ research, which now makes it possible to recreate organ pipes in different northern European 17th-century styles with a resulting sound quality that compares with that of historic pipes.

Yet even much more than such good organ pipes was needed to realize the whole vision. At the organ workshop, every moment in the organ's production was developed, such as bellows, wind channels, mechanics, keyboards, organ case, and the façade with its wood carvings. At the Chalmers University of Technology, the researchers further probed the questions about material, acoustics, and fluid dynamics. In this book, most of these parts of the project are described.

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Örgryte Nya kyrka

The vision required a church with a sanctuary of sufficient volume and with the possibility to place an organ on the main gallery. Since 1990, Göteborg University had contact with the Örgryte congregation about placing a Baroque organ on the Örgryte Nya kyrka's side gallery. After some study trips to historical prototypes, we realized that the side gallery was not the ideal choice; the organ should sound optimally length-wise in the room, or it would have to be given sufficient space to sound from the side gallery. In addition, the organ builders and acoustics researchers shared the opinion that the acoustics in the church did not suffice to fulfill the minimum quality of acoustics desired for the project. The acoustics in Baroque churches were essentially different in one aspect from those in Örgryte, so there was only one solution: build a new floor and ceiling! At the same time, a new organ gallery should be built both for the architecture of the organ, and to provide space for vocal and instrumental ensembles…

What to do? The church building was in a state of disrepair. In 1994-95, the discussions ranged from how to repair the church to whether to sell it or let it simply waste away. The congregation saw the organ project as a chance not only to hold onto their church, but also to restore it.

For a long time, a musical profile in the congregation existed of people who wished to develop the church in collaboration with the School of Music at Göteborg University. In cooperation with Länsarbetsnämnden (County Labor Board) in Göteborg and the Byggmästareföreningen Väst (Master Builders' Association West), an extensive workers' education project began, which meant that Örgryte Nya kyrka could undergo a sizeable renovation and partial re-building in 1996-97. The handcraftsworkers particularly interested in the project were engaged to participate in the educational project, which made it possible to achieve much more than originally planned: the church was not only renovated and the acoustics improved, but the church interior was re-done for the most part according to the style that existed at its inauguration in 1890. All of this was done for a reconstructed Baroque organ!

Some photographs of the original church interior from 1937 showed a magnificently painted sanctuary. The side galleries with their decorated railings, the pulpit and altar area with their ornaments and many different wood carving details were reconstructed, and the whole church was painted with original colors and stenciling. Everyone involved also knew that we also used old handcraft methods in the church. We understood that the quality and techniques the craftspersons used had something significant to present in our time. The vision of the organ project grew longer wings. When the church re-opened in September 1997, everyone agreed: the congregation had not only preserved their possession, but the church had become very beautiful, stately, and cathedralesque, - and now we were only waiting for the organ!

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The Completion of the Organ

The North German organ research project clearly became more extensive than we could have imagined from the beginning. As with almost all research projects, there were many more unknown factors in the core problem than we had projected when we began. For example, we did not know that Schnitger had cast pipe metal on sand. During 1997, it became apparent that only with the support of new financial means could the project be continued to completion. The university steering committee decided in February, 1998, that the organ project could continue to its completion.

Starting in the spring of 1998, the work primarily consisted of constructing the nearly 4000 pipes of the organ, as well as installing and voicing them. A very large number of pipes are housed inside the organ behind the stately façade pipes of nearly pure tin. The smallest pipe is only a few centimeters high! Each and every pipe is made by hand and has its own personality. The façade pipes are also framed with impressive wood carvings that are not only beautiful and included for the visual aesthetic, but they also play an important role in diffusing the sound in the church.

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The Goal

In the fall of 1999, half of the organ pipes were installed and preliminarily voiced. On Sunday, December 19th, the organ was introduced into the church service with a High Mass led by Bishop Lars Eckerdal. That was not only a festive and important glimpse of the organ's potential, also for the collaboration between the university and the church, but the event also served an important function in the research project. The organ sound and volume in the acoustics of the church filled with people could be tested before the remaining pipes were prepared, installed, voiced, and tuned. During the spring and summer of 2000, the final work continued with great intensity. Simultaneously, an international organ academy occurring August 5-18th was planned to the most minute detail. During the academy, the organ had its international and official inauguration. On Sunday morning, August 6th, Hans-Ola Ericsson presented his organ mass commissioned and specially composed for the new organ with Arp Schnitger's organ art in mind. On Saturday evening August 12th, the completed organ was inaugurated by the Princess Baroness Désirée. All those invited heard the instrument together with vocal and instrumental ensembles in the music galleries, everyone sang with the full organ and heard the sound of all of the 54 stops in different Baroque masters' compositions. What was certainly the conclusion of a ten-year project was simultaneously the beginning of something new: music-making. And that was actually the aim of the vision!

Concerts, recordings, symposia, conferences, education, research, and organ academies will follow. The internationally unique organ could serve as a prototype and an inspiration for future international organ and cultural heritage projects. The organ demonstrates new paths for care and protection of historical organs throughout Europe.

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Prototypes and Design


The North German organ research project began with several study trips to smaller preserved Arp Schnitger organs in North Germany and northeastern Netherlands. The purpose of the study trips was partly to gather and partly to check source material. Many measurements were taken of different parts of the instruments. The sounds of the organs and the acoustics of the churches were documented. The collected material was then analyzed and compared with historical source material, such as measurements taken earlier, historical organ building contracts, and congregational account books. Fairly early on, we decided that the material from the only organ preserved among Schnitger's largest organs, Hamburg St. Jacobi, should be the starting point for our instrument. In the early 1990s, the Jacobi organ underwent a reconstruction and restoration in Jürgen Ahrend's workshop in Leer-Loga, Germany, and we were able to follow this work closely. Thanks to the complete documentation of the pipework by Dr. Cornelius H. Edskes, Groningen, we had a wonderful basis for the sounding part of the organ. But the Jacobi organ's façade did not fit in the Örgryte Nya kyrka. It was simply too large. Therefore, we had to look for another prototype, which was Schnitger's organ in the Lübeck Dom. That organ was built from 1696-1699 under the leadership of Schnitger's journeyman Hans Hantelmann, and had 45 stops divided among three manuals and pedal. That was the only large organ Schnitger built in Lübeck.

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The Façade

Reconstruction of the organ's façade was accomplished through the help of old photographs from Museum für Kultur und Geschichte, Lübeck, fragmented measurements of the façade that were done before the war, and blueprints of the rebuilt church. Thanks to photogrammetry and geometrical calculations, the original façade proportions could be acquired. And thanks to the Swedish organ historian, Dr. Bertil Wester, who took façade measurements in 1934, the organ façade's measurements could be quantified. (In our analyses of the preserved results, we interpreted the old measurements in historical feet and inches.) Several extant Schnitger façades were measured and studied as references. These studies showed that Schnitger used geometrical proportions in his façade architecture, but that he chose different solutions for different organs.

In the case of the Lübeck Dom, the organ was constructed as if the façade of the organ was inside of a square (each side 8 meters). Then, that concept was divided into different divisions, pipe flats, towers, and turrets with geometrical figures and proportions that corresponded to overtone intervals (octave 1:2, fifth 2:3; fourth 3:4; major third 4:5, minor third 5:6). In that concept, one can perceive architecture as frozen music. The façade fit well in the space available in Örgryte Nya kyrka. But could it work to have the outside be from Lübeck and the inside from Hamburg, St. Jacobi?

From several perspectives, the actual organs are comparable, and with some minor adjustments,it became evident that it worked well to use both instruments as points of departure. The available space in Örgryte Nya kyrka actually gave the Ober Positiv a better placement than in Hamburg! In the meantime, the available space for the pedal led us to choose the Schnitger organ in Stade, St. Cosmae as a main reference for that division.

When the concept was established, the construction details could begin. For every part of the new organ that would be drafted, we searched for concrete prototypes from which we could study and analyze the construction. The starting points in construction created results affecting the entire organ. For example, the prototype for the bellows came from the preserved bellows in the Grote Kerk, Zwolle, The Netherlands. The construction of the remaining parts of the wind system was based on analyses of measurements from various German Schnitger organs (Neuenfelde, Pellworm, Stade). Gradually, a picture of Arp Schnitger's organ philosophy evolved, of how his organs took shape and of how he constructed them.

The pipes are placed in long ranks on the windchests. All of the pipes in the same rank are constructed in the same way, have the same sound color, and usually, one pipe exists for each key. Each one of these ranks has a stop name. Each windchest constitutes a division and is played from its own keyboard, or manual.

By pulling the stops on the sides of the manuals, the organist can move the sliders in the windchest. The sliders are thin boards with bored holes, one for each pipe. By changing the stops, one regulates which stops will sound or not. This mechanical system is called the stop action.

The bellows treader puts the air under pressure, forcing it through the channel system to the windchests. When a key is pressed down by the organist, it creates a mechanical motion to a valve in the windchest that opens, and air streams into all of the pipes for that pitch, provided that the stops are pulled out, i.e. provided that the sliders are in their working positions so that the holes in the sliders are under the holes in the toe boards upon which the pipes stand. All of the mechanical parts from key to valve are part of the so-called action.

Cross sections of the Örgryte organ reveal the construction in different divisions: Werck, Rück Positiv, Ober Positiv, Brust Positiv, and Pedal. Further on, the large bellows are found in the room behind the organ, and trunks that lead the wind to the different windchests and the complex mechanisms are maneuvered from the keydesk with its four manuals and pedal.

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The Organ Case

GOArt's organ research workshop was established to build the North German Baroque organ in a location (Varbergsgatan 2) that had previously been a workshop and storage place for tires. The wood shop, pipe shop, and a large space for the rough sawing, wood storage, and drying process, all fit in a space totaling 900 square meters. The experiments started here and branched out to all aspects of the organ building process.

The organ's foundational construction with moldings, cornices, pointed and polygonal towers is called the organ case. The organ case, along with all the wooden parts for the wind system, mechanisms, and keyboards were made in the carpenter's workshop under Mats Arvidsson's direction. One of the most important items of information before the work could begin was to find the appropriate type of properly dried wood. North German Baroque organs were usually made of oak, a type of wood that is well-suited to the desired goal and was also easily attainable at that time. Today, none of this type of oak can be found in North Germany, which is why we searched for other possibilities and decided that Swiss oak would best serve the purpose. Swiss oak has a density and structure similar to the oak found in North Germany in the 17th century.

The well-known, now retired organ builder Oskar Metzler, Oetwil, Switzerland, donated more than 70 m3 of naturally dried oak to the project. Metzler had chosen certain trees from the edge of the forest outside of Zürich, cut them, hauled them to his workshop, sawed them and stored them with proper air circulation, and let them dry outside under a roof for five to ten years, depending on their thickness. He also participated actively in the project by preparing the wood before it was sent to Göteborg. The final drying of the oak was done in the organ research workshop for a half year before the final selection was made and the wood work began.

The frame of the organ case was constructed using a traditional method, and joined with tenons so that it can be taken apart and built up again. The large moldings were reconstructed from photos of the Lübeck Dom organ. They were cut out by a machine, but the final scraping was done by hand. The task of building the moldings was arduous, and it was complicated to join them together, especially the sharp corners and polygonal shapes in the towers. Moufak Failli, a highly skilled Iraqi furniture maker, performed most of the work on the organ case and moldings. He also made all of the gallery railings with their own moldings, which were made in the workshop and mounted in the church without requiring special adjustments.

The last week in February, 1997, all of the finished parts were transported to the church: the twelve bellows, the nine windchests, rollerboards, and various parts of the organ case. Everyone from the workshop, reinforced by some volunteers, worked for several weeks to erect the organ case. Everything was done by hand, in the old manner, with only the assistance of a handdriven lift.

First, the bellows had to be installed in the newly built bellows room behind the organ. Every bellows weighs approximately 175 kg. Since there are twelve bellows, we had to lift more than 2 tons twelve meters from the church floor up to the bellows room. It took three days to move and install them. The next step was to build the weight-bearing construction for the Ober Positiv's windchest. That construction is joined together with large handmade oak beams, of which the largest is over five meters long and weighs more than 100 kg., and which were anchored in the blue church walls. Next, the installation of the organ case could begin. It was very challenging to plan exactly in which order the work had to be done so that everything could be put in its proper place.

The windchest to the Ober Positiv was the first to find its new home. The Werck windchest and rollerboards followed and were lifted up before the lower central part of the case and the moldings could be mounted. Finally, the side tower posts were fastened to the lower framework. At this point, we were forced to build scaffolding up to the tops of the side towers in order to continue with our work. And then the heavy crowns were placed on top in two steps, from the floor to the gallery and from the gallery to the top. Way up at the right height, we had to tip them over, turn them around and move them sideways into place. It took five or six workers to accomplish this daunting task. 

But, the worst was yet to come: to lift and maneuver the enormous center molding crown into place. On the morning of March 20, all of GOArt's workers gathered in the church. The top molding was lifted first to the gallery, and then with the assistance of a lift, six more meters up to a platform just under its final height. Here we turned the top piece, placed it in the tower, lifted it up 1.5 meters, turned it again, and finally tipped the heavy molding forward toward the altar and placed it in position. Witnessing this feat was witnessing work at the highest niveau! Afterwards, we were greatly relieved to gather again down in the church and celebrate this stellar moment with cider and cheers. After that accomplishment, it did not seem like a huge ordeal to move the Rück Positiv into place. In several days, this step was finished. Now, the organ case waited for its façade, so that it could be filled with glittering silver framed with lively wood carvings.

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New Techniques and Interdisciplinary Scientific Research

The interdisciplinary research started with the sound of the organ plus the historic pipes' mechanical and acoustical properties. Researchers from the Chalmers University of Technology strove to answer the following central questions:

  • Why do the 17th-century pipes sound different from new pipes made with similar constructions?
  • What material was used?
  • How was the metal treated?
  • To what extent does the material and its dimensions affect the sound?
  • How should the acoustics in Örgryte Nya kyrka function with the new organ?
  • How does the wind system in a North German Baroque organ affect the sound?

Three projects materialized with the following researchers spear-heading the projects:

  • Birger Karlsson and Milan Friesel (Department of Engineering Metals, SIMS-laboratory, Department of Microelectronics and Nanoscience, MINA),
  • Mendel Kleiner (Department of Applied Acoustics),
  • Bror-Arne Gustafson (Department of Thermo- and Fluid-Dynamics).

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The material researchers analyzed 17th-century metal composition. The metal consisted not only of tin and lead, but also of impurities and trace elements, small levels of bismuth, antimony, copper, silver, and arsenic. These trace elements affect the hardness of the metal, the casting methods, and workability of the metal. In the workshop, experiments were made casting metal sheets according to different alloy recipes. The casting bench proved to play a huge role in the cooling speed, which in turn affects the microstructure of the metal. The extensive multi-faceted experiment led us to the point of being able to reconstruct the original casting method.

During field studies of well-preserved 17th-century pipes, we observed that not only the lead pipes were cast on sand. No systematic study of casting on sand benches in the northern European organ tradition has been undertaken in modern times. General technical descriptions of sand casting from the 15th century until the 19th century were studied and we strove to complement the references from church archival material about organs. Unfortunately, no detailed description of the sand casting methods exists from any of the 17th-century organ builders. When Milan Friesel analyzed a small piece of a tin-rich façade pipe from 1624, he found sand embedded in the tin-rich alloy, which was the final confirmation that sand casting was indeed a 17th-century pipe making technique. After several years' research, innumerable experiments and tests, the break through emerged in the spring of 1997: various alloys could be cast on a sand bench, and finally, the pipe production could begin.

The casting is done in the following way. Tin and lead are melted in a pot. At a certain temperature (differing according to the alloy), the molten metal is poured into a casting box. The worker then quickly moves the casting box lengthwise down the sand bench, leaving a thin casting film behind. After a few seconds, the metal cools, crystallizes, and takes its new form. If the casting box is moved at a constant speed, the metal sheet thins out toward the end, a characteristic that the 17th-century organ builder calculated. Historic pipes are often thinner at the top, and therefore weigh less at the top than at the bottom, giving better stability and simultaneously a better resonance in the sound. The organ builder must always be aware of which pipes he/she is casting, what the desired thickness and thinning should be. In other words, the 17th-century organ builder cast the metal as close to the desired thickness as possible.

North German Baroque organ pipes consist primarily of three different alloys: nearly pure tin for the façade's glittering principal pipes, nearly pure lead for pipes whose prototype comes from the late 16th century and early 17th century, and so-called organ metal (usually 17-23% tin) for the rest of the pipework.

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At the Department of Applied Acoustics, the researchers probed how the acoustics in the Örgryte Nya kyrka could be improved to better resemble those in the Baroque churches. They built a scale model (1:10) of the church out of plywood, with measurements they could control, in order to refine the other models, including computer models of the church interior. As a reference in these studies, they used measurements from many well-preserved churches with relevant Baroque organs. The results from these studies provided the groundwork for the actual changes in the church that took place during the reconstruction.

Another important question was how an organ as large as the Hamburg St. Jacobi organ could function in a smaller church. Would Schnitger have changed something in the concept if he had built the organ in the Örgryte Nya kyrka instead? The most prominent example of a large North German 17th-century organ in a relatively small church is the organ in Stade, St. Cosmae. Therefore, the Stade St. Cosmae organ and church became important references for the sound model. We could establish that Schnitger used comparable, general measurements and scalings for the organs in Hamburg and Stade, but that he changed certain other factors, for example, the disposition, the wind pressure, and perhaps some details in the pipe construction. These factors applied to our project as well.

Various factors affecting the tone production in an organ pipe were studied from different perspectives and with assistance from a simulation program with measurements. Differences were observed not only in the construction of the historic pipes, but also in their acoustical properties. Thus, one could show that the pipe wall vibrations in fact have an audible influence on the sound of the pipes, not the least being in the speech quality. The mechanical properties of different alloys, depending on whether they had been scraped, planed, or rolled, could also affect the sound. Thin-walled pipes are also sensitive to coupling effects, which can mean that non-sounding pipes can resonate. This primarily applies to pipes positioned near the sounding pipes, and therefore, they also affect the sound of the sounding pipes. Last but not least, the organ builder's voicing work and our ability to comprehend and describe very subtle differences in the sound is a topic being dealt with in a psycho-acoustical study.

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Wind Flow

The organ's wind system with channels, windchests, and valves was an apt subject for fluid dynamics studies. A full-scale model of a wind system according to North German Baroque practice was placed in the laboratory at the Department of Thermo- and Fluid-Dynamics. They studied and simulated trunks, bellows and valves according to Schnitger prototypes in order to build a complete data model of the North German Baroque organ's wind system. In the Grote Kerk in Zwolle, the Netherlands, there is a complete bellows systems with twelve preserved wedge bellows, which were used as a prototype for our organ. Unfortunately, no complete original channel system exists today. Therefore, we used preserved parts of channel systems in various organs and checked church archives (Hamburg St. Jacobi, for example) for information about the measurements of older systems. Thanks to the computer model, we could test and simulate various alternatives and interpret possibilities. That assistance certainly made the reconstruction work easier, and also considerably increased our understanding of the functioning of the system.

As it was not possible to say with certainty which type of system Schnitger chose, we decided to build a flexible system that could be used in various ways. The final solution for the Örgryte organ was one channel system with some extra channels and several extra valves that made it possible to try the systems from three large documented Schnitger wind systems: Hamburg, Magdeburg, and Zwolle.

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The Renovation of the Church

In 1995, the placement of the organ was still an unsolved problem. Certainly we had an agreement with the Örgryte congregation from 1990 on, that Göteborg University would be allowed to place a Baroque style organ on a side gallery in Örgryte Nya kyrka. But it had been pointed out that the acoustics in the church must be improved and the organ must be placed in the main gallery in the west. New discussions began.

Like many other churches built around the turn of the century, the outer brick walls of Örgryte Nya kyrka had deteriorated. Earlier, the church had not been continually heated, and the tough west-coast climate including hard rains, heavy winds, and borderline freezing temperatures and alternating frosts and thaws were physically hard on the church. The wooden frame, beams and floor had rotted and were infested with fungus. The church building was in need of an extensive renovation.

In studying the room acoustics, we took many measurements, both in Örgryte Nya kyrka and in various churches in North Germany where typical Schnitger organs exist (for example Neuenfelde, Steinkirchen, Stade, and Hamburg). In order to reduce the sound absorption in the bass range, we needed to replace the existing floor with a denser, thicker, and stiffer floor, and also to change or complete the inner ceiling with heavier layers of plaster. These changes also had to meet the approval of the cultural preservation authorities, which led to further investigations of the church room and its history.

The church, designed by architect Adrian C. Petersson and built 1888-1890, had, at the hand of various renovators in 1937, 1951, and 1973-74, lost most of its original character. The north and south galleries had been lowered and reduced in size. The inner ceiling had originally had many small moldings with stenciled patterns. In the 1950s, these were taken away and the ceiling was covered with a woven cloth. Upon inspecting the walls, we realized that Adrian Petersson had actually had a whole paint decoration plan for the entire church. This was supported by photos that were found in a national archive (antiquarian topographical archive, ATA) in Stockholm, which showed the church's interior from 1937 before the first large rebuilding occurred. It had been a magnificent and lively interior!

The School of Music decided that it would be wise to place the North German Baroque organ in a church, where its function as a liturgical instrument could develop naturally, and that Örgryte Nya kyrka was the right place to fulfill this goal. The church was sufficiently large and if the organ could be placed on the west gallery to replace the congregation's previous organ it would be the ideal solution.

The congregation had an active musical life and was genuinely interested in this collaboration with the School of Music. They were concerned that the church would be optimally used in the future, and that it would be renovated as soon as was possible. All parties agreed about the uniqueness of the project, and strove together to find a solution for realizing the vision. An agreement was reached that during 1996-1997, the church interior would be renovated and rebuilt. The project was a collaboration between Göteborg University, the County Labor Board in Göteborg and Bohus County, the Master Builders' Association in West AB, and the Association of Göteborg Churches.

The Cultural Preservation Authorities concurred that the ceiling must be reconstructed to its original form, but by using modern material that could improve the acoustics. The work began in February, 1996, with dismantling the old galleries, re-doing the ceiling, building the north gallery, reconstructing the south gallery, and preparing for the floor and the new organ gallery in the west.

The rebuilding of the interior of the church proceeded within a workers' educational project where historical handcrafts were taught to younger craftspersons. The reconstruction of the ceiling and side galleries led to the wish to recreate the original colors, which could be realized because of the support of the County Labor Board.

A new hardwood floor was laid, partially from planks from an old tobacco factory, partially with 200-year-old parts from Ljusdal. Old building materials including those from the old main gallery were also recycled for the rebuilding of the side galleries.

The interior of the church was given back its old character in the original Neo-Gothic style. With all of the colors, paints, decoration and design, we tried as much as possible to recreate Adrian Petersson's concept as found in the photos from 1937.

The renovation of the interior required using many special, older building techniques, such as for the framework and floor in the galleries and for changes made in the floor and ceiling. A new double brick wall was built between the tower and the sanctuary when the new organ needed a back wall, in part as support for reflecting the sound out into the room, and in part to divide the separate bellows room from the tower. Bricks from 1907 were reused for the wall.

Parallel to the work on the interior, a thorough exterior renovation was carried out. Most importantly, the whole west end of the church including the roof and church tower were rebuilt. The deteriorating parts were redone and the foundation was renovated.

Since the new North German Baroque organ's architecture differed from the church's interior and would be placed in a gallery that would need to fit well with the aesthetic of the organ, the organ gallery was built in a 17th-century style. Pillars and beams for the gallery's frame were built by hand, and the floors of the gallery were made of strong, tapered planks that were nailed down with hand-forged nails. On both sides of the organ, music galleries were built for instrumental and vocal ensembles. Because of the organ's oiled pure oak façade and the oak imitation in the church interior, a harmonic color scheme emerged that balanced the different architectural languages.

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The Pipes - Prototypes and Production

Most of the inner parts of the Schnitger organ in Hamburg St. Jacobi were rescued from the destruction that took place during World War II. The organ was dismantled and stored, and thus spared from the fire caused by an air raid that severely damaged the church in 1944. After the war, the organ was rebuilt by the firm Kemper. However, it was not until 1993, after extensive reconstruction, new building and restoration by Jürgen Ahrend, that one could again experience Schnitger's organ in its entirety. The Jacobi organ contains the largest amount of preserved Schnitger pipework in any organ. Even though much of the material was somewhat changed and re-worked during renovations and rebuilding, it was still apparent that this must be the self-evident prototype for our organ.

The pipe measurements were studied and analyzed from different perspectives and compared to measurements from other Schnitger organs. The goal was to determine the scalings and proportions Schnitger used in building the Jacobi organ. Through the help of an ultrasonic device, the additional measurements of the pipe wall thickness and its variation could be obtained and documented, for instance. All of the measurements were placed on a diagram that was perhaps similar to what Schnitger's pipemakers used in his workshop. Many test pipes were made to test the materials and dimensions and to develop the tools, such as old-style scraping tools and tools for scribing the mouths, that could help us to achieve the same effect heard in the historical pipes.

The Hamburg St. Jacobi organ contains pipes of more than three generations of organ builders: Hans Scherer, Sr. and Jr. (1588/1605), then Gottfried Fritzsche (1635-36), then Arp Schnitger (1688-93). Schnitger used some of the stops of the earlier organs, and this is the overall concept we followed. Since the construction and material of the pipes are different from one builder to the next, we had to reconstruct three different methods, three different dialects from 17th-century North German organ building.

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The Organ Pipes and Their Production

All of the organ pipes were made in the pipe workshop under Munetaka Yokota's direction. Of the 54 stops, 52 are metal and two are wood. Metal pipes, of many different sorts and sizes, are made of various alloys of tin and lead. Two main types of pipes exist: flue and reed pipes. The flue pipe construction is reminiscent of a recorder: the tone is formed by a long, narrow wind stream that crosses the pipe's upper lip, where it creates oscillations that cause the air column in the pipe body to vibrate. The construction of a reed pipe is similar to that of a car horn; the tone is generated by a metal tongue that vibrates against a metal shallot when wind streams through the pipe.

Flue pipes

The first step in making flue pipes is casting the metal. For each pipe, the most appropriate metal sheet is selected. The sheet is scraped and planed, occasionally hammered to give the metal the desired structural and acoustical properties. The pipe sheet is cut and its exact mouth form is scribed according to geometric patterns derived from our historical models. When the mouth has been cut out, the sheet is rounded and soldered together. Then the three parts of the pipe - foot, languid, and body - are soldered together. If the work has been done correctly, the pipe comes out already capable of making sound, without adjustments. Then follow subtle adjustments until the final sound is achieved. Different stops have different pipe forms, measurements, and construction. For example, the pipe bodies can be cylindrical or conical, and can have either wide or narrow scaling.


Reed Pipes

Reed pipes are made in another way and with different material. Their central parts consist of a brass tongue and a shallot made of brass, and a tin and lead alloy. Making the reeds is precision work. The shallots in our organ were made by Jostein Pedersen. The shallot is mounted in a bored hole in a piece of wood called the block, and the tongue is wedged against the shallot. The block is placed in another part of the pipe, called the boot, also made of wood. A resonator (conical or cylindrical metal tube) is placed on the block. The resonator strengthens the fundamental pitch and certain overtones, thus providing the pipe with its proper sound characteristics.

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The Keydesk

The place from which the organist maneuvers the organ is called the keydesk or console. There are keyboards for hands (manuals) and feet (pedals) and the stop knobs for all of the stops, or voices of the organ. Organ builders invested a great deal of detail into forming the keydesks. The keydesk should be miniature mirrors of the harmony of the façade. The keydesk decorations are like a microcosm that should inspire the music-making. With all of its details, stop knobs and keyboards, the keydesk must have appeared unbelievably advanced to the Baroque folk.

Schnitger's keydesk from the Lübeck Dom organ is preserved at the Museum für Kultur und Geschichte, Lübeck. It had been removed and sent to the museum when the firm Walcker built an organ (1892-93) behind Schnitger's façade. To facilitate the building process of our keyboards, the museum loaned the Lübeck keydesk to the Göteborg project during most of 1997. It was with great anticipation that we opened the newly arrived wooden box one February morning that year: certainly that organ was regularly played and cared for by Dieterich Buxtehude, organist in Lübeck St. Mary's Church. And Johann Sebastian Bach must also have played those keys when he visited Lübeck during the Advent-Christmas season in 1705. The worn keys were a testimony to 200 years of use and also revealed that the organists played mostly on the Hauptwerk and Rückpositiv. The keydesk construction and material was documented in detail.

Even if we had wished to, we could not build an exact copy of the keydesk. The new organ was to have four manuals and the keydesk from Lübeck had three. In the course of his whole life, Schnitger only built two large organs with four manuals: Hamburg, St. Nikolai (1682-87) and St. Jacobi. Unfortunately, neither of those keydesks is preserved. Therefore, it was necessary to try to analyze the Lübeck keydesk construction, compare it with others, and on the basis of these results, to formulate a concept with four manuals.

In this work, the organ in the Grote Kerk, Zwolle was an important reference. The organ was initiated by Arp Schnitger but finished after his death by his sons Frans Caspar and Johann Georg. Originally, the Zwolle keydesk had four manuals, and even though they are not entirely preserved today, some extant keys and mechanical parts gave us important information.

The North German Baroque organ keydesk was built by Endre Kerekes. All of the details were formed in keeping with the prototype. The keys are of oak faced with boxwood and palisander, the music rack has a walnut veneer. The elegant ornaments that Harald Sandler carved are also out of walnut.

The manuals in our keydesk are partially different than the keyboards one could find on Schnitger's organs. We have added two or three extra keys, so-called subsemitones, in every octave. Subsemitones existed before Schnitger's time, from 1636 in St. Jacobi, Hamburg, for example, when Matthias Weckmann served as organist 1655-74. Weckmann came from the electoral court in Dresden where Heinrich Schütz, who was well-acquainted with Italian music, was responsible for the music. Weckmann and his contemporary organists became the new musical ambassadors in the north. From the organ galleries, they played new music with court musicians, the so-called Organistenmusik, while musicians under the leadership of the cantor played more traditional church music and motets from the choir.

At that time, organs were tuned in meantone tuning, a wonderful temperament in which the triads had purely tuned major thirds. Much symbolism was embedded in the triad. The triad represented complete harmony and therefore symbolized the Trinity. This tuning could not be sacrificed! But the temperament was limited to only seven keys or modes. Newly composed music created the necessity of expanding the modal or tonal spectrum, which was solved by adding subsemitones and more keys within each octave. Matthias Weckmann played the Jacobi organ Rück Positiv with subsemitones, and thus was able to perform with vocal and instrumental ensembles, and was even able to play pure thirds up to F# major. In turn, the instrumentalists and singers played pure intervals, which created colorful harmonic progressions in the modulations found in the new music. Since the vision for our project was to create an instrument that could be used with all 17th-century organ, vocal, and instrumental music, we chose this concept without any hesitation.

The stopknobs are carved from applewood after the prototype of Schnitger's organ in Cappel. The preserved stop jambs from Hamburg and Lübeck were studied. We found that the stop jambs from Hamburg are probably from the early 19th century. At least the writing on the stop jambs was from this period, as was discernable when they were compared with the stop jambs from Lübeck that are mostly like the original calligraphy. Therefore, we chose to use the Lübeck jambs as our prototype.

The organ is full of mechanisms and wind channels that are operated from the keydesk. Under the floor, one can find a network of mechanical connections and hundreds of meters of trackers The (long, thin wooden slats). The organist initiates the motion and impulses from the keydesk to the windchests and their valves through the action. The action consists of trackers, rollers, and squares. The rollers transfer the motion sideways, and the squares, made of hand-forged iron, transfer the motion 90. The mechanisms that lead the motion from the stop knobs to the sliders are proportionally larger than the key action, and contain many parts of forged iron, including backfalls, which transfer the motion in the opposite direction.

Nearly all of the forged parts in the organ, from the hinges to the squares, were made in the blacksmith shop at Terra Nova on the Göteborg harbor. There, a merchant ship from 1738, the Ostindiefararen Götheborg III, is being reconstructed. The master blacksmith, Bert Johansson, directed the work in the blacksmith shop.

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The Wood Carvings

Baroque organ façades were richly ornamented with wood carvings and sculptures that, along with the whole architecture of the organ, made visual the angel choirs' music-making, music's heavenly and cosmic essence, the harmony of creation, and the city's power and prosperity. Renaissance symmetry and elegant carvings and sculptures were transformed in the High Baroque period to dynamic garlands of acanthus leaves that adorn the façades pipe flats and angel musicians. Organ façades resonated with the architecture in Hanseatic cities. More or less richly ornamented house gables framed the streets toward the tower where the courthouse's splendid façade presented itself. On the harbor, it was not rare to see large merchant- and warships side-by-side, mirroring their magnificent sterns. The wood carvers worked on all of these objects.

The North German Baroque organ carvings, like the entire façade, have the Schnitger organ in the Lübeck Dom as their prototype. The well-known woodcarver Jakob Budde and his apprentices and journeymen worked for several years on Schnitger's organ. Today, a pulpit and some other preserved parts of his work are housed in the Lübeck Jacobikirche. The hallmark of his work, including the carvings he did for Schnitger's organ, consists of lively and impressive forms, a personal stamp and dynamic style that belongs to the High Baroque period. Unfortunately, none of his ornamentation from Schnitger's façade is extant. Therefore, naturally, we had to pursue our desire to reconstruct the wood carvings in the Lübeck Dom façade.

But how exactly were the carvings done, and what did they look like in Schnitger's time? At that point in the project, we did not know that Budde actually worked in the church during the 1690s. We discussed the alternative of choosing a somewhat simpler concept as a point of departure, for instance, Hamburg St. Jacobi. In any case, we were convinced that genuine antique-style wood carving was necessary, not only for the overall aesthetic concept, but for the diffusion of the organ sound. With their irregular forms, the carvings regulated how much of the sound would be brought forth, and how the sound would be spread and diffused, giving the sound a greater complexity in the room.

Christiane and Harald Sandler, Germany, were responsible for the design and execution of the wood carvings in the North German organ. They also led the work in the wood shop. Their work began in the fall of 1997 with studies of the forms and construction of many of the Schnitger organ wood carvings. The Sandler couple came to the conclusion that neither of the alternatives, Lübeck Dom nor Hamburg St. Jacobi, could be reconstructed in detail in Örgryte Nya kyrka. With Hamburg, they had a concrete prototype, but it needed to be adjusted to the frame measurements of Lübeck. This meant that certain patterns had to be altered. In the case of the Lübeck Dom, we had only the preserved photos as a point of departure. But the patterns from Lübeck could be recreated even if the depth of the carvings and the details of the construction were not fully obtainable. However, we also had to realize that the Schnitger organ in the Lübeck Dom was placed significantly higher than our organ in Örgryte Nya kyrka. We took into consideration the idea that the person standing on the floor of the Örgryte Nya kyrka should have a similar visual experience to the person who would have looked at the Lübeck façade from the floor of the Dom. Therefore, our carvings could be made somewhat less deep than the Lübeck carvings. But the Sandler couple preferred to recreate Budde's life-filled language, which they considered gave a more artistic and impressive result. Sketches and clay scale models from both alternatives were compared, and Budde was unanimously chosen as our prototype for the carvings.

Christiane and Harald Sandler first designed the overall concept of the carvings in the pipe flats. Then for each category, many sketches were made, as well as scale models of clay, and finally, a full-scale drawing. Then, they cut and carved an ornament that served as a prototype for the rest of this type of ornament and could be used as a model by the other wood carvers in the workshop. All of the carvings were made of massive oak, the type of wood Budde probably used in Lübeck. The work was extensive and it took three persons two years to complete it.

From below in the church, it is not possible to grasp what large dimensions the carvings in the top part of the side towers have. They are more than two meters high. We planned for additional carvings on the outer parts of the pedal towers as well as on the top, the so-called wings and crown. These ornaments are part of the Lübeck concept, but were most likely not motivated by an acoustical goal, and thus could not be included within the project.

Our studies of gilding did not result in a clear-cut picture. It was indeed clear that the older builders generally strove to gild the ornaments, possibly to give visual relief to the whole façade, something we also concluded when we tested the gilding in Örgryte Nya kyrka. Different gilding techniques were used during Schnitger's time, but gilding on gesso seems to have been the preferred method for this type of ornamentation. We concluded that the handwork had great significance for the appearance of the end result, for example, to which extent and with what kind of evenness the gilding was applied. It is our hope that in the future, the new organ can be completed with the rest of the ornaments and the gilding.

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The Final Stages

All of the details of the organ case and the related mechanisms were finished and fine-tuned during the fall of 1998. Simultaneously, the wood carvings took form and were mounted in the organ façade. In the pipe workshop, the workers continued to cast the pipe metal on sand and to make all of the details of the pipes according to the prototypes.

The pipework was installed in the following order. First, test pipes were examined in the organ. When the test pipes were properly adjusted, the rest of the pipes were made. After the pipes were finished in the workshop, they were transported to Örgryte Nya Kyrka. In the church, the pipes were carefully adjusted to produce the ideal sound, a process called voicing. First, the lead-rich flue pipes and the tin-rich façade pipes were voiced. Then, the rest of the flue pipes were added, and finally, the reed pipes.

During the spring of 1999, all of the shiny façade pipes made of nearly pure tin were installed and voiced. They were very carefully lifted into place. Every one in the workshop helped to lift up the façade pipes. Afterwards, they all stood on the church floor, looked up, and marveled at how beautiful the pipes looked in the façade. It was beginning to look like a real organ! During the summer, the wood carvings were completed and installed. For the first time, we could look at the façade in its entirety.

On a warm summer evening, Sunday, August 1, 1999, participants in the yearly conference of the Gesellschaft der Orgelfreunde, which took place in Göteborg, got a taste of the organ's sound, when Harald Vogel played for them on the first 20 stops. This provided an excellent opportunity for us to test the organ sound when the church was filled with people. As a result of this test, the wind pressure was raised somewhat and some small voicing adjustments were made. At the end of December, 1999, the organ was used in a liturgical context in a High Mass on the 4th Sunday in Advent, again with a church filled with people. No adjustments were necessary, so the work with the remaining stops and pipes could proceed.

Munetaka Yokota was responsible for the overall voicing work. Reinalt Klein assisted him by doing pre-voicing and tuning. The project group (organ builders and researchers) gathered regularly in Göteborg to follow the work and to continue the documentation of the project. In working with the test pipes, Munetaka Yokota experimented with different voicing techniques Schnitger might have used. Here, Yokota could test in real life the documentation that had been gathered earlier on the smaller, well-preserved Schnitger organs. It was an exciting development! With the documentation of all of the pipes in Hamburg St. Jacobi and various reference organs, a world of sound we had dreamed of and waited for gradually became a reality. Sometimes we encountered problems that were difficult to overcome. Other times we took short study trips to complete the documentation or to try out the test pipes in the original organs. New discoveries or sometimes confirmations of hypotheses gave our work new impetus.

The general aim of the voicing work was to bring out the best possible sound of every pipe. This is done by adjusting the volume, the color, and speech, with careful attention to the balance among the various stops and individual tones. After the pipes were tested in different combinations of stops with various musical examples, the fine adjustments could be made. During the voicing, we began with a preliminary pitch reference, which was later replaced by the final pitch.

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The Disposition of the Organ

The 54 stops of the North German Baroque organ are divided among five divisions (Werck, Rück Positiv, Ober Positiv, Brust Positiv, and Pedal) and are played from four manuals (keyboards) and pedal. Actually, it is like having several organs in the same instrument. The organist can play echoes by playing the same chord on different manuals, which will sound from different parts of the room. This can also be done with contrasting colors and dynamics.

The whirling cosmic sounds that could result were represented in the Baroque time by the heavens, the universe, and music made by choirs of angels, that is, all of the full divisions of the organs played in alternation. And the organists created, in the introductory and concluding organ playing in the liturgical service, a kind of music of the heavenly gates. In his musical, philosophical treatise Musurgia Universalis (1650), Athanasius Kircher described a world in which there would be only a large organ, a world organ, that was played by the caretaker and leader of the universe, the actual Creator. But the organ, the queen of instruments, should also contain all other musical instruments. Many popular Baroque instruments were named, such as dulcian, zinck, trumpet, bassoon, recorder, and cornet. The dispostion of an organ encompasses all of these voices. See the specification and technical description of the organ.

The disposition reveals a complete menu from the Baroque world of sound. Behind all of these names are living sounds and musical character, the sounds that once inspired Buxtehude and Bach! The vision took us on a long but fascinating trip toward the organ masters' secrets. Now we know that there is no simple answer for the question of why the historical pipes sound different than the modern ones. But we have shown that today, it is possible to create pipes that have the same complex beauty as Arp Schnitger's! It is a profound experience of beauty that enriches and moves the soul, one that future generations can receive as a heritage and an inspiration.

 Welcome to the soundscape of our vision become reality! Enjoy listening to the queen of instruments in Örgryte Nya kyrka! (Recording from the inauguration by Sveriges Radio.)

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© GOArt 2000

Updated Aug. 30, 2000
Alf Åslund